Immunity, sex hormones and environmental factors as determinants of the COVID-19 disparity in women



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Immunol before. Aug 18, 2021; 12: 680845. doi: 10.3389 / fimmu.2021.680845. Electronic collection 2021.


The current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a major global pandemic, causing extreme morbidity and mortality. Few studies seem to suggest a significant impact of gender in morbidity and mortality, where males are reported to be at higher risk than females. The infectivity, transmissibility and the varying degree of disease manifestation (mild, modest and severe) in population studies reinforce the importance of a number of genetic and epigenetic factors, in the context of the immune response and sex. This review focuses on several contributing factors such as a stronger innate immune response, estrogen, the angiotensin 2 converting enzyme gene, and the microbiota, which confer greater resistance to infection. by SARS-CoV-2 and disease progression in women. In addition, the underlying importance of the associated microbiota and certain environmental factors in the gender disparity regarding mortality and morbidity from COVID-19 in women was also discussed.

PMID: 34484179 | PMC: PMC8416472 | DOI: 10.3389 / fimmu.2021.680845



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